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google欲退出中国市场

技术资源 小陈 2692浏览 2评论

今天,Google在英文的官方博客声称,Google已经做出决定,重新检讨在中国开展业务的可行性,如有必要,可能会关闭Google.cn,并撤出在中国的办事处。

A new approach to China

Like many other well-known organizations, we face cyber attacks of varying degrees on a regular basis. In mid-December, we detected a highly sophisticated and targeted attack on our corporate infrastructure originating from China that resulted in the theft of intellectual property from Google. However, it soon became clear that what at first appeared to be solely a security incident–albeit a significant one–was something quite different.

First, this attack was not just on Google. As part of our investigation we have discovered that at least twenty other large companies from a wide range of businesses–including the Internet, finance, technology, media and chemical sectors–have been similarly targeted. We are currently in the process of notifying those companies, and we are also working with the relevant U.S. authorities.

Second, we have evidence to suggest that a primary goal of the attackers was accessing the Gmail accounts of Chinese human rights activists. Based on our investigation to date we believe their attack did not achieve that objective. Only two Gmail accounts appear to have been accessed, and that activity was limited to account information (such as the date the account was created) and subject line, rather than the content of emails themselves.

Third, as part of this investigation but independent of the attack on Google, we have discovered that the accounts of dozens of U.S.-, China- and Europe-based Gmail users who are advocates of human rights in China appear to have been routinely accessed by third parties. These accounts have not been accessed through any security breach at Google, but most likely via phishing scams or malware placed on the users’ computers.

We have already used information gained from this attack to make infrastructure and architectural improvements that enhance security for Google and for our users. In terms of individual users, we would advise people to deploy reputable anti-virus and anti-spyware programs on their computers, to install patches for their operating systems and to update their web browsers. Always be cautious when clicking on links appearing in instant messages and emails, or when asked to share personal information like passwords online. You can read more here about our cyber-security recommendations. People wanting to learn more about these kinds of attacks can read this U.S. government report (PDF), Nart Villeneuve’s blog and this presentation on the GhostNet spying incident.

We have taken the unusual step of sharing information about these attacks with a broad audience not just because of the security and human rights implications of what we have unearthed, but also because this information goes to the heart of a much bigger global debate about freedom of speech. In the last two decades, China’s economic reform programs and its citizens’ entrepreneurial flair have lifted hundreds of millions of Chinese people out of poverty. Indeed, this great nation is at the heart of much economic progress and development in the world today.

We launched Google.cn in January 2006 in the belief that the benefits of increased access to information for people in China and a more open Internet outweighed our discomfort in agreeing to censor some results. At the time we made clear that “we will carefully monitor conditions in China, including new laws and other restrictions on our services. If we determine that we are unable to achieve the objectives outlined we will not hesitate to reconsider our approach to China.”

These attacks and the surveillance they have uncovered–combined with the attempts over the past year to further limit free speech on the web–have led us to conclude that we should review the feasibility of our business operations in China. We have decided we are no longer willing to continue censoring our results on Google.cn, and so over the next few weeks we will be discussing with the Chinese government the basis on which we could operate an unfiltered search engine within the law, if at all. We recognize that this may well mean having to shut down Google.cn, and potentially our offices in China.

The decision to review our business operations in China has been incredibly hard, and we know that it will have potentially far-reaching consequences. We want to make clear that this move was driven by our executives in the United States, without the knowledge or involvement of our employees in China who have worked incredibly hard to make Google.cn the success it is today. We are committed to working responsibly to resolve the very difficult issues raised.

Posted by David Drummond, SVP, Corporate Development and Chief Legal Officer

翻译原文:http://www.williamlong.info/archives/2053.html

中文意思:

由Google高级副总裁、公司发展兼首席法律顾问大卫•多姆德(David Drummond)执笔的官方博文“新的中国策略”(A new approach to China)指出,Google业务系统遭受到来自中国有针对性的攻击,导致知识产权被盗,Google在2006年进入中国,是为了让中国人能够在更加开放的互联网中获取信息,基于这种理念,Google可以容忍部分审查,但Google会密切注视中国新的法律对Google服务的限制情况,现在Google已经确认,Google已经到了重新考虑评估中国业务运营可行性的时候了。

在过去的一年里,对于互联网言论自由的限制已经完全突破了Google的底线,Google公司已经决定,不愿再审查Google.cn上的搜索结果,因此,如果可能,Google将在未来几周时间和中国政府谈判,要求能够在中国法律框架内运营未经过滤审查的搜索引擎。Google承认这很可能意味着必须关闭Google.cn,撤出Google在中国的办公室。

看来,中国的互联网环境之恶劣,连国际互联网巨头Google都无法忍受了,Google的这个决定首次对中国的互联网政策说了声“不”。如果未来Google真的撤出中国,不仅仅Google会损失掉中国的业务,中国自身的经济发展也会受到冲击,国际形象会有负面影响,对于广大依靠Google AdSense业务生存的个人网站来说也是致命一击,中国的个人网站可能真的要走向灭亡了。

撤出中国对于Google来说影响并不太大,2008年,Google在中国收入为2.1亿美元,百度为4.688亿美元,2008年Google全球收入为218亿美元,Google中国收入不及Google全球收入的百分之一,因此,即使Google完全退出中国市场,对其自身的营收也几乎没有任何影响。

中国对于互联网的整顿以及大规模的“国进民退”,民营网站被关,“国家队”登场等等,已经使Google认清了,所谓“未来庞大的中国互联网市场”只不过是一块永远也吃不到的蛋糕,或许根本就不存在,因此也没有必要继续留在中国了,Google应该做的是为了未来而牺牲当下,而不是为了当下牺牲未来。

附录:读者Jason Liu翻译的Google官方博客文章:新的中国策略 (A new approach to China)

像很多知名的公司一样,我们每天都在遭受着或多或少不同程度的网络攻击.在12月中旬,我们监测到了一个从中国来的对google网络基础架构的高智能的目标明确的攻击,其目的是为了盗取google的技术资源.这个一开始被我们仅仅当成是一个重大安全事故的独立事件其实是另有来头的.

第一,这次攻击不仅仅针对google.我们的调查显示至少有20家大的公司,行业领域包括互联网,金融,科技,传媒,化工,都遭受了相似的攻击。我们正在通知这些公司,而且我们正在与美国相关领域的专家进行合作.

第二.我们有证据显示这些黑客的主要目标是获取中国人权活动家(Chinese human rigths activists)们的gmail账号信息.调查显示这些黑客并没有达到他们的目的。只有两个账户似乎被侵入,但是仅得到了账户的一般信息(比如说账户 是何时建立的)和邮件的标题,并没有得到邮件的内容。

第三,作为这次调查的另一部分,我们发现很多个在中国,美国,欧洲致力于中国人权发展的用户的gmail账户经常被第三方人士查阅.这些第三方人士并不是通过google的安全漏洞来获取gmail信息的,而是通过网络钓鱼和在用户的计算机上运行恶意软件的方法来获取用户的gmail邮件信息.

我们已经通过这次攻击所收集到的信息对我们的架构做出了修正以提升google和 我们用户的安全。对于个人用户来说,我们推荐用户安装知名的杀毒软件和反间谍程序,为自己的操作系统打上最新的补丁,升级自己的浏览器,始终小心处理im 和email中的链接,在网络上被要求告知个人信息比如密码时保持警惕。你可以通过这里获取我们关于网络安全的建议。希望了解关于这些网络攻击的种类的人 可以阅读这份美国政府报告(pdf), Nart Villeneuve 的blog 还有这份这份关于ghostnet间谍事件的介绍(wiki上有介绍,跟咱中国又有关系).

我们已经采取了非常规的手段–与广大的相关人士交流这次攻击的信息,这样做不仅仅是因为这次事件中我们发掘出来的安全和人权问题,更重要的是这件事的 核心其实是全世界关于言论自由的讨论.在过去的20年中,中国的经济改革和人民的商业头脑使中国数以亿计的中国人脱离了贫困.在当今世界,这个巨大的国家 是整个世界经济发展的中心。

我们在2006年的1月成立了google中国。我们相信与我们必须忍受中国政府的某些内容审查而遭受到的不快相比,无疑让中国人接触到更多的信息和创造一个更加开放的互联网络是更为重要的事情。在当时我们确定了“我们将一直小心关注中国的情况,包括新出台的法律和其他政策制度对我们服务的限制。如果我们认为我们没有能力达到我们提出的目标(指创建一个更加开放的互联网络),我们将会毫不犹豫的考虑是否撤出中国市场”。

这些攻击和审查,同时考虑到这些年对网络上子自由言论的限制,让我们觉得我们应该重新审视我们在中国业务的可行性.我们不愿意再继续忍受对我们google.cn上内容的审查,接下来的几个星期内我们将会与中国政府讨论有关我们是否能够在法律允许的范围内运行一个没有审查和过滤的搜索引擎的可能性。如果失败的话,这久可能意味着我们将要关闭google.cn,以及google中国。

做出这样一个决定是非常困难的一件事,而且我们明白这将会造成深远的后果。有一点要说清楚,这样的决策是由在美国的主管人员们所做出的,并没有到目前为止辛勤工作使google中国如此成功的中国部分员工的参与。我们将会负责任的解决这个棘手的问题。

David Drummond, 企业发展部高级副总裁 首席法务官

我很难想象google会真的退出中国,随着接触互联网的时间越来越多,发现了解的事情也越来越多,对于搜索引擎来说,我现在都是用google搜索,因为百度的搜索结果根本没有google的多,而且google的许多业务都是免费的,当google退出中国时,我们可能无法再使用,这对于我们中国网民,中国互联网来说是一大损失。没有竞争就没有进步,如果中国市场只是百度一家独大,我想,中国的网络文化真的要倒退到文化大革命的时候了。再者,google的退出也可能和天朝的政策有关,就像互联网上说的,“让一群不懂网络的人来管理网络”。想起另一位博主所说的话,生在天朝本就是杯具!

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  1. 谷歌。一路走好,消灭0回复!
    小清12年前 (2010-01-15)